If large numbers of pea aphids develop in the spring, they can cause extensive damage to the first cutting and reduce the vigor of subsequent cuttings. Two other related and similar species, A. kondoi and A. lactucae also occur in the American West, but are not typically found on pea or lentil. Green peach aphids are easily identified; they tend to be found on the underside of leaves and vary in colour from bright green to pink.
Management of the aphid is complicated because it is a vector of several important and injurious viruses affecting pea and lentil. This aphid overwinters as an egg on alfalfa, vetch, and clover and moves to peas in the spring. As with any chronic problem, early detection of plant-feeding insects makes their treatment and elimination much simpler. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), presents a dual threat to commercial pulse growers because it can inflict direct injury through feeding and indirect injury as a vector of two important viruses, Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) and Bean leafroll virus (BLRV). When infestations are large, the whitish cast 'skins' or exuviae can be observed covering the plant. The pea aphid injures the plant directly by removing sap with its sucking mouthparts. PEMV has a temperature-dependent latency of 4-70 hours , followed by a minimum access inoculation period of 7-120 seconds. Infection in the major perennial hosts, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and white clover (Trifolium repens), is usually symptomless. Chang, Gary C., Jeffrey Neufield, and Sanford Eigenbrode. 73 0 obj <>stream Interactions Between Specialist and Generalist Natural Enemies: Parasitoids, Predators, and Pea Aphid Biocontrol. The pea aphid has several defensive mechanisms to stall or inhibit natural enemy foraging.
The yellow mosaic spots become translucent and clearly delineated. Both adults and nymphs suck juices from alfalfa plants.
Pea aphids are small and green or pink. PeSV is transmitted by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in a non-persistent manner, after a minimum access acquisition period of 15 min. Infestations during the bloom and early pod stages will reduce yield and crop quality by removing plant sap, impairing pod appearance, reducing seed fill, impairing nitrogen fixation and by the presence of aphid honey-dew. Heavy populations may develop when insecticides used to kill other alfalfa pests and with little to no activity against aphids kill the predators and parasites of this aphid. Fungi will control high aphid populations during warm, humid or wet weather. Harvest or spray nearby alfalfa, vetch or clover before winged adults are formed in the spring. Many of these insecticides require a license from your county agricultural commissioner for purchase or application. Take 20 sweeps in each of 5 locations throughout the field and estimate the volume of aphids in the net after each set of sweeps. The pea aphid adult is small, about 4 mm (0.15 inches) long, light green, and long-legged. There are many natural enemies (lady beetles, lacewings, flower fly larvae, predatory midges, Braconid wasps) that help reduce aphid numbers.
The cornicles (tail-pipe-like structures on the rear of the abdomen) are long slender tubes and are unique to the aphid family (Aphididae). New York, New York: Chapman & Hall. Since these viruses are not seedborne and since the virus reservoirs in the Palouse are not known, these colonizing aphids bring the viruses that can eventually cause serious injury, an event that has occurred sporadically over the past nearly three decades. Populations can increase rapidly since each female can produce 50 to 100 nymphs. Damage – Damage to bean, pea, and cowpea is caused primarily by the foliar-feeding adults. Regular monitoring of garden crops is essential for their success. damage the crop. Also examine each stem and record length and growth stage. © 2009 Purdue University. A decision support system is needed to help producers manage both of these threats in pulses. 2006. Monitoring & Thresholds: Start monitoring when plants begin to flower. A pea aphid being consumed by the seven-spotted lady beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) Photo: Brad Stokes.
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